Crop Improvements

National Agricultural Research Project, Bharuch


Variety BDN-2 was released for grain purpose (1984). It is semi-determinate, small and white seeded, resistant to wilt and susceptible to Heliothis and SMD

Variety GT 1 of pigeon pea is recommended for vegetable purpose (1991). It is early, high yielded, non-determinate, tolerant to wilt, Heliothis and pod fly. It has higher shelling percentage and sweet in taste.


The pigeon pea grower of Agro-climatic zone II are advised to inter crop their pigeon pea with black gram to 100:75 (3 lines of black gram @ 30 cm. between two rows of pigeon pea planted at 120 cm.) to get the highest net return (Rs. 26578) and CBR (1:5.2).

For maximizing economic return to the farmers of rain fed areas of south Gujarat, pigeon pea should be intercropped with Urid or Mung (1:2) (1990)

The pigeonpea grown under rainfed conditions should be planted at 90 cm row to row and 20 cm from plant to plant distance for maximum yield and net return (1987).

To have effective weed management in rainfed pigeon pea, farmers are advised to have one hand weeding at 30 DAS followed by one interculturing. Under the heavy rainfall areas, farmers may use Fluchloralina or Pendamethaline @ 1.0 lit a.i./ha followed by one inter culturing at 60 DAS (1989).

In the Agro-ecological situation-V of south Gujarat zone, mulching with black plastic can increase the rain fed pigeon pea yield by 23%, yet at the present cost of plastic, it is not economically viable. Wherever feasible, the farmers are advised to adopt grass mulching @ 5 t/ha mmediately after the cessation of monsoon to get about 12% more income (1994). 

The farmers of south Gujarat zone, growing pigeon pea variety BDN-2, Nylon or Bhadbhoot under rainfed condition in Sulphur deficit soils are advised to apply S @ 20 kg /ha through gypsum along with the recommended dose of N & P (20 & 40 kg/ha) as this treatment showed additional net income of Rs. 2475/ha with ICBR of 1:40 (1995).

The marginal farmers can apply S @ 20 kg/ha and can earn more income of Rs. 900/ha with ICBR [1:29].

The pigeon pea growers of south Gujarat Agro climatic zone II are advised to thin their crop when it is 30 days old keeping plant to plant distance of 20 cm (1995). 

The pigeon pea growers of AES V of south Gujarat zone II are advised to adopt integrated weed management (Pendamethaline 1 lit a.i./ha + inter culturing at 60 DAS) instead of manual weeding in order to obtain higher yield and monitory return (1996)

The farmers of south Gujarat zone (AES III), growing pigeon pea (BDN-2) as main crop are advised to rotate their pigeon pea crop with either castor (GCH-4) to get 105% or cotton (G.Cot.11) to get 44% higher economic return as compared to pigeon pea followed by pigeon pea (1999).

The farmers of south Gujarat zone (AES II) are advised to open a furrow of 22.5 cm depth at every 5 m distance. Five lines of pigeon pea should be sown on the raised bed (1999). 

Pigeonpea (GT 1) growers of south Gujarat zone (AES III) are advised to cultivate their crop geometry of 120 cm x 30 cm (1999).

Pigeon pea growers of agro climatic zone II, AES V are advised to fertilize pigeon pea (GT-1) with 10 tonne FYM + 75% R.D. [20:40:00] NPK kg/ha to get higher net return [Rs. 15546] and CBR [1:3.4] to reduce 25% chemical fertilizer.



Economic control of pest complex in pigeonpea, 3 spraying of Monocrotophos 0.04% or Endosulfan 0.07% should be done at the initiation of flowering, at 50% flowering and at 50% podding (1987).

In water scarcity areas of south Gujarat region, pigeon pea crop should be dusted with Methylparathion 2% dust @ 25 kg/ha three times at the initiation of flowering, at 50% flowering and at 50% flower podding (1987). 

For effective control of insect-pest in pigeonpea and to get maximum NICBR, the crop should be sprayed with Endosulfan 0.07% at threshold level, i.e. 2% damage level and only one spraying is sufficient. However in heavily infested areas 3 spraying of these insecticides is essential (1989). 

In Heliothis infested areas, late varieties of pigeon pea and in pod fly, problematic areas, early varieties of pigeon pea is advised (1987).

Pigeon pea varieties PPE 45-2 and AL 57 have been observed moderately resistant against Heliothis and podfly (1990).

Two dusting of Quinalphos 1.5% dust @ 25 kg/ha at 50% flowering and subsequently at 50% pod setting are recommended to the marginal and small farmers for the control of podfly in pigeon pea under south Gujarat condition (NICBR 1:7.0) (1990).

Three spraying of 5% neem seed extract (NICBR 1:10.04) at the initiation of flowering and 50% podding stage are recommended to the economically backward farmers for the control of pod borer in pigeon pea under south Gujarat medium rainfall zone (1993).

Farmers of south Gujrat Agro-climatic zone II are advised to spray two rounds of NPV 500 l/ha in 0.1% teepol followed by Endosulfan 0.07% at an interval of one week [net income Rs 15754/ha with CBR 1:3.48] or

Two sprays of Endosulfan 0.07% alone at 15 days interval [net income 14061 Rs./ha with CBR 1:4.13] (1995) or Spray three rounds of NPV 500 l/ha 0.1% teepol at weekly intervals (CBR 1:2.38) from initiation of first instar larvae to control podborer in pigeon pea (1995).

Application of Dicofol @ 0.04% is recommended for effective control of spider mite Eotetranychus broodryki on pigeon pea (1998)

Three applications of wettable sulfur 80 WP (0.125%) or Dicofol 18.5 EC (0.04%) or Endosulfan 35 EC (0.075%) at 35, 65 and 95 days after sowing of pigeon pea crop is recommended for suppression of pigeon pea Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) incidence (1998). 

Earlier recommendations (I) three applications of Endosulfan 0.07% and (ii) NSKS @ 5% for the control of pod borers in pigeon pea are confirmed.

For effective control of pod borer [H. armigera] and pod fly [M. obtusa] and getting higher yield, the pigeonpea cultivars of south Gujarat [middle rainfall] AES-V are advised to spray any of the following insecticide viz; Triazophos 35 % + deltamethrin 1% [Spark 36 EC] @ 0.036% [ICBR 1:7.68]; Prophenofos 50 EC @ 0.04% [ICBR 1:6.81]; CHORPRIPHOS 50% + CYPERMETHRIN 5% [Nurele-D505 55 EC @ 0.055% [ICBR 1:6.19] or PROPHENOFOS 40% + CYPERMETHRIN 4% [Polytrin C-44 EC] @ 0.044% [ICBR 1:5.77] whenever pod borer cross the ETL [at flowering stage 20 larvae/20 plants & at pod formation stage 10 larvae/20 plants] (2005).


For effective control Fusarium wilt in pigeon pea and to get maximum NICBR, the seed should be treated with TMTD (Thirum) @ 3 g/kg seed. If TMTD is not available, farmers are advised to use Captafol (Foltaf) (1990).

The furrow application of bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum multiplied on FYM @ 200 g/mt row length (2222 kg/ha) followed by sowing Carbandizum treated seeds (3 g/kg seed) is recommended to the farmers of Agro-climatic south Gujarat zone for the effective control of pigeon pea wilt and getting higher return (Rs. 8173) (1997).

The pigeon pea growing farmers of south Gujarat zone are advised to adopt the practice application of press mud @ 10 t/ha after solarizing the field through transparent (LLDPE 25 micron) Polyethylene sheet for one month to reduce the wilt incidence by about 50 percent, increased the yield by 100 per cent and net return by 50 per cent (1997).

Farmers of south Gujarat zone (AES V) are advised to coat pigeon pea seeds with PBA 22 Torulospora globosa (ICBR 1:513) or PBA 13 Bacilluscoagulans (ICBR 1:379) each having (10 raise to 8) CFU/g carrier @ 30 g. culture/kg seed before seeding to save 40 kg P2O5/ha and get maximum green pod yield.

Pigeon pea growing farmers of south Gujarat Agro climatic zone II are advised to treat seeds with Rhizobium culture (ARS-21) 10 cfu/g @ 30 g/kg seeds to save 20 kg N and to get maximum grain yield (CIBR 1:283). (2001).

It is recommended for scientific community that lines BPWR-03-1 and BPWR03-2 were found resistant to wilt disease which could be utilizing further breeding programme in future to evolve wilt resistant variety.(2003)

Line BPWR-04-2 [Selection from PF-3] was found resistant to wilt disease which could be utilized in further breeding programme in future to evolve wilt resistant variety (2005).

Seed soaking in the solution of chitinolytic bacterium (Pentoea dispersa) @ 108 viable cells/ml for four hours before sowing was found effective for the management of wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.udum) of pigeonpea